15 Difference Between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

Points of ComparisonAdaptive ImmunityInnate Immunity
DescriptionThis sort of immunity develops as we are exposed to infections or receive vaccinations.Innate immunity is a type of immunity that is both universal and non-specific, and it is the initial line of defense against infections.
ComponentsAntibodies are the key components.Toxic granules, for example, are antimicrobial peptides and proteins.
Cells Antigen-presenting cells such as T cells, B cells, and others.Macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, basophils, and eosinophils are all part of the immune system.
Response TimeInnate immunity has a slower response time (approx 1-2 weeks).In most cases, the response time is minimal and the action is immediate.
SpecificityIt has a high level of specificity and can distinguish between pathogen and non-pathogen structures, as well as minor changes in molecular structures.Molecules and molecular patterns linked with generic infections or foreign particles are the only ones that are specific.
Presence When the body is exposed to a foreign substance, it develops adaptive immunity.Immunity that is already present in the body is known as innate immunity.
NatureAdaptive immunity is not inherited because it is not passed down from parents to children.Immunity that is inherited from parents and passed down to offspring is known as innate immunity.
MemoryThe adaptive system can recall the infections it has previously faced.When exposed to the same pathogen repeatedly, it is unable to react with the same potency.
Evolution Only vertebrates have an adaptive immune mechanism, which was established lately.It’s an ancient evolved response that can be found in both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Defence Adaptive immunity is the second line of defense, and it kicks in when pathogens get past innate immunity’s defenses.The initial line of defense against antigens entering the body is innate immunity.
DiversityIt is quite diverse and may be tailored to identify epitopes and antigenic determinants through genetic recombination.It has a limited range of diversity. Standard receptors are employed, and they only recognize antigen patterns. To adapt the immune response, no new receptors are created.
NatureAdaptive immunity can be induced.Innate immunity can’t be induced. It isn’t generated in reaction to the presence of its substrate, in other words.
AbilityAdaptive immunity has the power to combat a certain infection.Innate immunity defends the body against all infections and antigens.
ExamplesAdaptive immune systems can “remember” diseases like chicken pox. As a result, the chances of developing the sickness are considerably reduced.An example of innate immunity at work is a cut on the skin that leads in edoema and inflammation.